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Open pit mining
Brief introduction

Open-pit mining, is a process of removing the overburden from the ore, obtaining the required minerals, and extracting useful minerals from open-pit stopes. Open-pit mining operations mainly include perforation, blasting, mining, transportation and dumping processes. According to the continuity of work, it can be divided into discontinuous, continuous and semi-continuous.

Compared with underground mining, open-pit mining has the advantages of full utilization of resources, low dilution rate, suitable for large-scale mechanical construction, fast mining construction, large output, high labor productivity, low cost, good labor conditions and safe production.

Open-pit mining is the earliest mining method for human to use minerals. It was originally the outcrop of ore deposits and shallow rich ore deposits. Since the power excavator was used at the end of the 19th century, open-pit mining technology has developed rapidly, and the scale of open-pit mine has become larger and larger.

Open-pit Mining Technology

1. Open-pit mining refers to the method of stripping rocks and extracting ores in a certain mining process and in a certain mining sequence. Open-pit mining technology, according to the continuity of operation, is divided into discontinuous, continuous and semi-continuous, according to the distribution of ore deposits, there are roughly two types of mining methods:


1.1、平缓矿床的采矿方法

1.1. Mining methods for gentle deposits

适用于倾角一般小于12°的平缓矿床。

It is suitable for gentle deposits whose dip angle is generally less than 12 degrees. Discontinuous mining technology is suitable for various geological, mineral and rock conditions; continuous mining technology has high labor efficiency and is easy to realize automation of production process, but can only be used for soft rock of typical loose-dry filling mining method scheme; semi-continuous mining technology has the characteristics of both above, but in hard rock, it is necessary to increase the link of mechanical breaking rock. Mining sequence is the coordination of mining and stripping in time and space.


1.2. Inverted heap mining method

剥离物用机械铲或索斗铲直接向前一采掘带采空区倒堆,采矿工作面紧随剥离工作面推进。在相同情况下,机械铲的重量约为索斗铲的1.8,因此剥离高台阶时,多用索斗铲。剥离更高的台阶可采用二次或多次倒堆。方案有一台机械铲配合一台索斗铲、二台索斗铲互相配合或仅用一台索斗铲兼作二次倒堆等。

The stripped material is dumped by mechanical shovel or rope bucket shovel directly in the goaf of the first mining zone, and the mining area is pushed forward closely with the stripped area. In the same case, the weight of the mechanical shovel is about 1.8 times that of the rope shovel. Therefore, when peeling the high steps, the rope shovel is often used. The higher step can be stripped by two or more stacking. In the scheme, one mechanical shovel cooperates with one rope bucket shovel, two rope bucket shovels cooperate with each other, or only one rope bucket shovel acts as a secondary dump, etc.


1.3横运采矿法

1.3 transverse mining method

剥离物用排土桥、悬臂排土机循垂直于工作线方向运往采空区,剥离台阶与采矿台阶推进的空间关系也受运输设备规格的限制,但不如倒堆采矿法那样严格。本法可适应更大的剥离厚度,民主德国的AFB60型排土桥的可剥离厚度为60m。

The stripping material is transported to the goaf by dump bridge and cantilever dump along the direction perpendicular to the working line. The spatial relationship between stripping step and the advancing of mining step is also limited by the specifications of transportation equipment, but it is not as strict as the upside-down mining method. This method can be applied to larger stripping thickness. The stripping thickness of AFB-60 dump bridge in Democratic Germany is 60m.


1.4. Longitudinal mining method

剥离物沿工作线,绕过端帮,纵向运往采空区。本法不受采、运设备规格和剥离岩石厚度的限制,有较大灵活性。适用于单斗-机车车辆、单斗-(破碎机)带式输送机、单斗-汽车、轮斗-机车车辆-带式输送机等多种工艺。

The stripped material is transported longitudinally to the goaf along the working line, bypassing the end wall. This method is not limited by the specifications of mining and transportation equipment and the thickness of peeled rock, and has greater flexibility. It is suitable for single bucket - locomotive vehicle, single bucket - belt conveyor, single bucket - automobile, wheel bucket - locomotive vehicle - belt conveyor and other processes.


1.5、倾斜矿床的采矿方法

1.5. Mining methods of inclined mineral deposits

基本上把剥离物运往外排土场,仅当采掘工作达到终了深度后,才能利用采空区内排。工作线的布置方式,基本有沿矿体走向布置和垂直矿体走向布置。

Essentially, the stripped material is transported to the outside dump. Only when the excavation reaches the final depth can be discharged in the goaf. The layout of working line is basically along the direction of ore and vertical direction of ore.

初始位置和推进方向的选择,应综合考虑矿床的地形地质条件、生产能力、运输方式、基建剥离量和生产剥采比的均衡等因素。倾斜矿床的生产剥采比在开采中是变化的。为了减少基建剥离量和推迟剥离高峰,平衡生产剥采比,改善经济效果,可以采取以下措施加陡工作帮坡角。

The selection of initial location and advancing direction should take into account the factors such as the topographic and geological conditions of the deposit, production capacity, transportation mode, the balance of capital stripping volume and production stripping ratio. The production-stripping ratio of inclined deposits varies during mining. In order to reduce the amount of capital stripping and delay the peak of stripping, balance production stripping ratio and improve economic effect, the following measures can be taken to steepen the working slope angle.


1.6. Combination Steps

用一台设备顺序采掘一组相邻的台阶,仅在采掘台阶上设工作平台(图1[ 组合台阶加陡工作帮]),也可有其他方式。

There are other ways to excavate a group of adjacent steps sequentially with one equipment, and only a working platform is set up on the excavation steps .


1.7、横采掘带

1.7. Transverse mining belt

汽车运输的横向采掘带,相邻台阶尾随采掘,工作线横向布置,纵向推进(图2[横采掘带加陡工作帮])。任一横断面上只有一个工作平台,每一台阶可设12台采掘设备。与组合台阶相比,本法可布置较多的采掘设备。

Horizontal excavation belt of automobile transportation, adjacent steps followed by excavation, horizontal layout of working line, longitudinal advance . There is only one working platform on any cross section, and 1 to 2 mining equipments can be installed on each step. Compared with the combined bench, this method can be arranged more mining equipments.


1.8、分区分期开采

1.8. Divided and staged mining

走向较长或面积较大的矿床,实行分区分期开采,优先开采矿体厚、品位高、覆盖薄和剥采比小的区域。

For the mineral deposits with longer strike or larger area, the zoning and staged mining should be carried out. The areas with thick ore, high grade, thin coverage and small stripping ratio should be preferentially mined.


1.9. Types of equipment and processes:

II. Construction Method

2. Open-pit mining process mainly includes perforation blasting, mining, transportation and dumping. The order of open-pit mining is the coordination of mining and stripping in time and space. The quality of these four tasks and their coordination is the key to open-pit mining.


2.1、穿孔爆破是在露天采场矿岩内钻凿一定直径和深度的定向爆破孔,以炸药爆破,对矿岩进行破碎和松动。穿孔设备主要有冲击式钻机、潜孔钻机和牙轮钻机等,多用铵油炸药、浆状抗水炸药和乳化炸药及粒状乳化炸药。

2.1. Perforation blasting is to drill directional blasting holes with a certain diameter and depth in open-pit stope to break and loosen ore and rock by explosive blasting. Perforation equipment mainly includes impact drilling rig, DTH drilling rig and rotary drilling rig. Ammonium oil explosive, slurry anti-water explosive, emulsified explosive and granular emulsified explosive are commonly used.


2.2、采装工作是用人工或机械将矿岩装入运输设备,或直接卸到指定地点的作业。常用的设备是挖掘机(有多斗和单斗两类)、轮斗铲和前端式装载机,广泛采用的为单斗挖掘机。

2.2. Mining and loading is the operation of loading ore and rock into transport equipment by manual or mechanical means or unloading them directly to designated locations. The commonly used equipment is excavator (with multiple buckets and single bucket), wheel bucket shovel and front-end loader, which is widely used as single bucket excavator.


2.3、运输工作是将露天采场的矿、岩分别运送到卸载点(或选矿厂)和排土场,同时把生产人员、设备和材料运送到采矿场。主要运输方式有铁路、公路、输送机、提升机,还有水力运输和用于崎岖山区的索道运输。选择运输方式必须综合考虑地形、地质、气候条件,露天矿生产能力,开采深度,矿石和围岩的物理力学性质等,经过全面技术经济比较后,确定合理的运输方式。

2.3. Transportation work is to transport the ore and rock of open-pit stope to the unloading point (or concentrator) and dump respectively, and to transport the production personnel, equipment and materials to the stope at the same time. The main modes of transportation are railways, highways, conveyors, hoists, as well as hydraulic transport and ropeway transport for rugged mountainous areas. The selection of transportation mode must take into account the topography, geology and climate conditions, open pit production capacity, mining depth, physical and mechanical properties of ores and surrounding rocks, etc. After a comprehensive technical and economic comparison, a reasonable transportation mode should be determined.


2.4、排土工作系指从露天采场将剥离覆盖在矿床上部及其周围的大量表土和岩石,运送到专门设置的场地(如排土场或废石?。┙信牌淖饕?。排土方法依其排土设备的不同,分为推土犁推土、推土机排土、前装机排土和拖拉铲运机或索斗铲排土等。推土场应选择在尽量靠近采矿场,少占农田的位置,有条件的应放置在山谷、洼地处,注意环境?;ず驮焯?、还田。

2.4. Dumping refers to the removal of a large amount of topsoil and rock covering the upper part of the deposit and its surroundings from an open pit to a specially designed site (such as a dump or a waste rock yard) for disposal. According to the different dump equipment, the method of dump can be divided into bulldozer plow, bulldozer, front loader, tractor scraper or cable bucket shovel, etc. Bulldozers should be located as close as possible to the mining site and occupy less farmland. When conditions permit, they should be placed in valleys and depressions. Attention should be paid to environmental protection, land-making and returning.






技巧

III Skills



3、 露天开采当矿体埋藏较浅或地表有露头时,应用露天开采最为优越。随着开采技术的发展,适于露天采矿的范围越来越大,可用于开采低品位矿床和某些地下开采过的残矿。

3. Open-pit mining is the most advantageous method when the orebody is buried shallowly or the surface is outcropped. With the development of mining technology, the scope of open-pit mining is becoming wider and wider, which can be used to mine low-grade ore deposits and some underground residual ore.


3.1、露天采场内的矿岩通?;治欢ǜ叨鹊姆植?,每个分层构成一个台阶,以进行剥离和采矿。生产过程由矿岩松碎、采装、运输和卸载(卸矿和排土)组成。较松散的矿岩可用不经破碎,直接用采装设备挖掘。

3.1. Ore and rock in open-pit stope are usually divided into layers of a certain height, each layer constitutes a step for stripping and mining. The production process consists of rock crushing, mining, loading, transportation and unloading (unloading and dumping). Loose ore and rock can be excavated directly with mining equipment without breaking up.


3.2、对平缓矿床(一般矿层倾角小于12°)采用倒堆、横运或纵运采矿法。对于倾斜矿床采用组合台阶、横采掘带或分区分期开采的方法。

3.2. For gentle mineral deposits (generally the dip angle of the ore bed is less than 12 degrees), dump, transverse or vertical mining method is adopted. For inclined deposits, the method of combination step, cross mining zone or zoning and staged mining is adopted.


3.3、通常以倒堆法最优,横运法次之,纵运法最差。但适用的剥离厚度则相反。当剥离厚度大时,可在下部台阶用倒堆法或横运法,上部用纵运法。为缩短运距,可将矿田划分为若干采区,按一定顺序开采,把剥离物排往本采区或前一采区的采空区。

3.3. The upside-down method is usually the best, the transverse method is the second, and the longitudinal method is the worst. However, the applicable stripping thickness is the opposite. When the stripping thickness is large, the inverted stacking method or transverse transport method can be used on the lower step and the longitudinal transport method can be used on the upper step. In order to shorten the transportation distance, the ore field can be divided into several mining areas, mining in a certain order, and discharging the stripped material to the goaf of the mining area or the previous mining area.

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